Ultrasound for Infertility

Ultrasound is applied when there is a necessity of a nonsurgical observation of a womans pelvic organs conducted during various infertility tests and procedures. During ultrasound observation high-frequency sound waves observe body organs and tissues at different speeds. Then the reflected waves return to a detector where they are transformed into pictures. To evaluate the condition and to prescribe necessary treatment the probe (transducer) is used. The place of the probe’s location is within the vagina (it is known in the medicine as transvaginal).

The evaluation of the inner side of uterus is performed through the hysterosonogram (it is also known as endometrial cavity) by filling the uterus with fluid during a test conducted with a transvaginal ultrasound. This procedure is called a sonohysterogram.

Ovarian follicle development is observed with ultrasound. The procedure is used for information concerning the number, size of developing follicles and the reaction of the uterine lining (endometrium) to follicle growth. Transvaginal ultrasound has more advantages comparing with transabdominal ultrasound because it can monitor follicle growth, count the follicles’ amount and evaluate the thickness and the uterine lining’s growth.
Ultrasound is a quick, vaginally invasive procedure that causes no pain and demands no special dietary preparations. An outpatient basis is necessary for the conduction of ultrasound procedure. The results should be interpreted by a radiologist or a gynecologist. During a test that longs 20 minutes you should empty your bladder.

The transvaginal ultrasound is used to:
1) Evaluate the state of the external structures of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
2) Monitor the development of follicles in the ovary that leads to ovulation.
3) Evaluate the condition of the uterus and uterine lining.
4) Insert a needle for the removal of eggs used in reproductive techniques.
5) Count how many egg follicles are available in the ovaries. The treatment’s effectiveness is influenced with egg follicles’ quantity in the ovaries, the patient’s age and blood tests.
Ultrasound and reproductive techniques can find out how ultrasound and laparoscopy differ from each other.

The results of ultrasound may be either normal or abnormal.
The results of ultrasound are considered to be normal when the size and shape of uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries are in a normal condition. They are also normal when no growths, scar tissue or injury site (known as abnormal attachments to the wall of the abdomen) are observed. The amount of follicles and their development are also normal results.

The results of ultrasound are considered to be abnormal when such problems are observed as:
1) Extremely thick or deformed uterine lining.
2) Defects in the structure or enlarged uterus.
3) Uterine fibroids or ovarian cysts available in the organs.
4) The fallopian tubes are not in a normal condition, it is known as hydrosalpinx.
5) There are some available egg follicles in the ovaries.
Ultrasound cannot monitor small tumors, scars and internal structures, such as a dividing tissue growth (septum) within the uterus.