There are many issues, which can cause impaired sperm count or mobility, or impaired ability of sperm to fertilize the egg. Among the most widespread male infertility reasons are considered to be abnormal sperm production of functioning, impaired delivery of sperm, general lifestyle of a man and his overexposure to some certain chemicals and / or radiation.
Impaired Production or Functioning of Sperm
Quite often men suffer from being not able to conceive because of some problems with the sperm. These problems may be the following:
Impaired shape and movement of sperm. In order for the fertilization to occur, sperm is to be of a proper shape and it is to be able to move rapidly and in an accurate way only in the direction of the egg. Either in case of an abnormal shape and structure (morphology) of sperm, or if the sperm is abnormal in its movement (motility), it may not be able to reach and / or penetrate the egg. Thus the fertilization will not take place.
Low concentration of sperm. The normal concentration of sperm is considered to be either greater of equal to 20million of sperm per one milliliter of semen. Any number, which is fewer than that means low sperm concentration (the term “subfertility” is applied to describe this health condition). It is also possible to have complete failure of the testicles, however, it happens rarely enough, and it affects very few men.
Varicocele . It is a varicose vein, located in the scrotum, that may not let normal cooling of testicles to occur, and it usually leads to the reduction of sperm count and motility
Undescended testicle. This condition takes place, when either one or even both of the testicles do not descend into the scrotum from the abdomen during the fetal development of a boy. Thus, the testicles may be exposed to higher internal body temperature, than is considered to be normal for them; it may cause some problems with the production of sperm.
Testosterone deficiency (male hypogonadism). Some kind of disorder of the very testicles may also become the reason of male infertility. Here the abnormality of the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland, which produce special hormones that control the work of the testicles are also included.
Genetic defects. One of the most widespread men’s genetic defects is considered to be the Klinefelter’s syndrome. It is the condition, when a man has two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome. And it really should be one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. This issue may cause some kind of abnormal development of the testicles, the result of which is low sperm production, or the complete absence of sperm. Moreover, the level of the testosterone (the male hormone) is usually low in these men.
Infections. If a man suffers from constant sexually transmitted diseases, like Chlamydia, gonorrhea, etc, he is at a great risk of becoming infertile, as different infections may affect sperm motility, they can also cause scarring and block the passage, through which the sperm moves. In case if a teenage boy got mumps, the infection, which usually affects little children it may cause the inflammation of the testicles, which can impair the production of sperm. Different kinds of the inflammations of the prostate (prostatitis), urethra and epididymis may also become the reasons of the sperm’s motility alteration.